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Pascal's calculator (also known as the arithmetic machine or Pascaline) is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century. Pascal was led to develop a calculator by
the laborious arithmetical calculations required by his father's work as
the supervisor of taxes in Rouen. He designed the machine to add and subtract two numbers directly and to
perform multiplication and division through repeated addition or
Pascal's calculator was especially successful in the design of its carry mechanism,
which adds 1 to 9 on one dial, and carries 1 to the next dial when the
first dial changes from 9 to 0. His innovation made each digit
independent of the state of the others, enabling multiple carries to
rapidly cascade from one digit to another regardless of the machine's
capacity. Pascal was also the first to shrink and adapt for his
purpose a lantern gear, used in turret clocks and water wheels. This innovation allowed the device to resist the strength of any operator input with very little added friction.