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Viking 1

Viking 1

The mission Viking 1 was launched by NASA August 20, 1975 and reached Mars on June 19, 1976.

July 20, 1976, the lander is dropped from orbiter and landed on the surface of Mars in the Chryse Planitia region.
The lander had been sterilized on Earth to avoid contamination of the Martian soil.

The Viking 1 lander carrying three biology experiments, in order to find traces of life on the red planet.
After gathering with telescopic arm of soil samples, they were analyzed to find chemical reactions resulting from forms of micro-organic life.
I have results were discordant, and even today scientists are wondering if the Viking 1 had found traces of life or if the results were only of chemical origin.
The temperature at the soil was of -14 ° C to -77 ° C day and night.

The mission ended in November 1982.

In the same period of the Viking 1 mission, a sister lander, Viking 2, landed in another area of ​​Mars to carry out such research.